High Voltage Glossary Of Terms

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A
Armored Cable

A cable provided with a wrapping of metal, usually steel wires or tapes, primarily for the purpose of mechanical protection.

Arc-over Voltage

The minimum voltage required to cause an arc between electrodes separated by a gas or liquid insulation.

Attenuation

(l) The ratio of the input to output power levels in a network (transmission line) when it is excited by a matched source and terminated in a matched load. (2) Power loss in an electrical system.

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B
Bare Conductor

A conductor not covered with insulating material.

Bayonet Coupling

A quick coupling device for plug and receptacle connectors, accomplished by rotation of a cam operating device designed to bring the connector halves together.

Beryllium Copper (BeCu)

A relatively expensive contact material with properties superior to brass and phosphor bronze. It is recommended for contact applications requiring repeated extraction and reinsertion because of its resistance to fatigue at high operating temperatures.

Breakdown Voltage

The voltage at which an insulator or dielectric ruptures, or at which ionization and conduction take place in a gas or vapor.

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C
Cable

Either a stranded conductor with or without insulation and other coverings (single-conductor cable), or a combination of conductors insulated from one another (multiple-conductor cable).

Cable Assembly

A cable with plugs or connectors on each end.

Capacitance

That property of a system of conductors and dielectrics that permits the storage of electricity when potenial difference exists between the conductors. Its value is expressed as the ratio of quantity of electricity to a potential difference. A capacitance value is always positive.

Closed Entry Contact

A female contact designed to prevent the entry of a pin or probing device having a cross-sectional dimension (diameter) greater than the mating pin.

Coaxial Cable

A high-band width cable consisting of two concentric cylindrical conductors with a common axis that is used for high-speed data communication and video signals.

Component Lead

The solid or stranded wire or formed conductor that extends from a component and serves as a readily formable mechanical or electrical connection or both.

Concentricity

In a wire or cable, the measurement of the location of the center of the conductor with respect to the geometric center of the surrounding insulation.

Conductance

The reciprocal of resistance. It is the ratio of current passing through a material to the potential difference at its ends.

Conductivity

The ability of a material to conduct electric current. It is expressed in terms of the current per unit of applied voltage. It is the reciprocal of resistivity.

Conductor

A wire or combination of wires not insulated from one another, suitable for carrying electric current.

Connection

That part of a circuit that has negligible impedance and that joins components, devices, etc., together.

Connector

A device providing electrical connection/disconnections. It consists of a mating plug and receptacle. Various types of connectors include DIP, card edge, two-piece, hermaphroditic and wire-wrapping configurations. Multiple contact connectors join two or more conductors with others in one mechanical assembly.

Connector Discontinuity

An ohmic change in contact resistance.

Connector Insert

For connectors with metal shells, the insert holds contacts in proper arrangement while electrically insulating them from each other and from the shell.

Connector Shell

The case that encloses the connector insert and contact assembly. Shells of mating connectors can protect projecting contacts and provide proper alignment.

Contact, Female

A contact located in an insert or body in such a manner that the mating contact is inserted into the unit. It is similar in function to a socket contact.

Contact, Male

A contact located in an insert or body in such a manner that the mating portion extends into the female contact. It is similar in function to a pin contact.

Contact Plating

Plated-on metal applied to the base contact metal to provide the required contact resistance and/or wear resistance.

Contact Resistance

Maximum permitted electrical resistance of pin and socket contacts when assembled in a connector under typical service use.

Contact Retainer

A device either on the contact or in the insert to retain the contact.

Contact Size

Defines the largest size wire that can be used with the specific contact. By specification dimensioning, it also defines the diameter of the engagement end of the pin.

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D
Diallyl Phthalate (DAP)

A thermosetting plastic that offers outstanding dimensional stability and resistance to most chemicals and chemical compounds. It is used in the production of connector housings.

Dielectric

(l) Any insulating medium that intervenes between two conductors. (2) A material that, having the property required to establish an electric field, is recoverable in whole or in part as electric energy.

Dielectric Constant

That property of a dielectric that determines the electrostatic energy stored per unit volume for a unit potential gradient. Permittivity is the preferred term.

Dielectric Strength

The maximum voltage that a dielectric material can withstand, under specified conditions, without rupturing. It is usually expressed as volts/unit thickness. Also called Disruptive Gradient or Electric Strength.

Dielectric Withstanding Voltage

Maximum potential gradient that a dielectric material can withstand without failure.

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E
Emc

Electromagnetic compatibility.

Emi

Electromagnetic interference.

Elastomer

A material that at room temperature stretches under low stress to at least twice its length and snaps back to original length upon release of stress.

Electric Strength

The maximum potential gradient that a material can withstand without rupture. Also called Dielectric Strength and Disruptive Gradient.

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F
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G
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H
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I
Impedance

The total opposition that a circuit offers to the flow of alternating current or any other varying current at a particular frequency.

Insertion Force

The effort, usually measured in ounces, required to engage mating components.

Insulation

A material that offers high electric resistance making it suitable for covering components, terminals and wires to prevent the possible future contact of adjacent conductors resulting in a short circuit.

Interfacial Seal

Sealing of a two-piece, multiple contact connector over the whole area of the interface to provide sealing around each contact.

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J
Jacket

Outermost layer of insulating material of a cable or wire.

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K
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L
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M
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N
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O
"O" RING

A doughnut-shaped ring of rubber used as a seal around the periphery of the mating insulator interface of cylindrical connectors.

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P
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Q
Quick Disconnect

A type of connector shell that permits rapid locking and unlocking of two connector halves.

Quick Disconnect Coupling

A design feature, apparent in the quick disconnect connector; it permits relatively rapid joining and separation.

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R
Rated Voltage

The maximum voltage at which an electric component can operate for extended periods without undue degradation or safety hazard.

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S
Shield

Device surrounding that portion of a connector that is used for attaching wires or cables to shield against electromagnetic interference, and/or protect connector wires or cable from mechanical damage.

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T
Thermal Shock

Thermal shock is the effect of heat or cold applied at such a rate that non-uniform thermal expansion or contraction occur within a given material or combination of materials. In connectors, the effect can cause inserts and other insulation materials to pull away from metal parts.

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U
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V
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W
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X
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Y
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Z
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