The testing performed by a user to determine that an automated system
(equipment or software) for a specific task or environment, e.g., a translator for a
specific application and interchange format, performs according to specification.
Acquisition Manager (AM):
The system/equipment program manager, the program manager's staff, and
other DoD officials responsible for determining contract requirements for the generation,
acquisition, and use of defense system/equipment data, and having acquisition authority
for defense systems and equipment.
A computer language designed as a standard for U.S. government and NATO
procurements. Ada is a required language for mission-critical projects.
ANSI (American National Standards Institute):
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a privately funded,
non-profit organization which coordinates the development of voluntary standards in the
United States and is the agency that approves standards (as American National Standards).
It coordinates and manages U.S. participation in the work of several non-governmental
international standards organizations, including ISO and IEC (NCGA). ANSI's membership
consists of over 1000 companies and organizations.
Continuously variable. Until recently almost all audio signals were
analog. At any instant, it could have a value between zero and a few volts and could be
graphed as a flowing waveform. In contrsat, at any instant, a digital signal can
have the values of 0 or 1.
The object that is highlighted and "clickable" on a web
document. It may be a word, a phrase, or an inline image. When clicked, it may send you to
another spot on the page (back link), another page, a document on another server, or a
place on a remote document.. An anchor tag has the following format: <A
HREF="something">highlighted text or image</A>
The ANSI X12 standards specify the format and data content of electronic
A miniature application - an enhancement to a web page involving the
embedding a foreign type of program in the page.
A number of application protocols required for a specified task or
industry sector. [Associated with STEP]TEP]]f Trade and Industry, United Kingdom.
"Open Systems in Manufacturing".
Application Protocol (AP):
Defines the context for the use of product data and specifies the use of
the standard in that context to satisfy an industrial need. [Associated with STEP] ,
United States Government. "Military Standard 1840-B" 3 November 1992.
A system for locating files that are stored on FTP file servers. A search utility. A keyword search service that searches the directory and
file titles of all FTP sites that are indexed.
The name by which the Internet was originally known.
ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency):
An agency within the defense department that distributes funds for
defense related research projects. ARPA (AKA DARPA) provided the initial funding for the development of platform independent
wide area internetworks. This project eventually became the Internet.
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange):
The American Standard Code for Information Interchange is used
extensively in data transmission. The ASCII character set includes 128 upper and lower
case letters, numerals and special purpose symbols, each encoded by a unique 7-bit binary
number. ASCII text is a subset of the ASCII character set consisting principally of the
ASCII text is the plain fixed width text found in email.
While HTML web documents are sent as ASCII files, they contain
embeded tags that can be interpreted by web browsers.
There is an ASCII number corresponding to each letter of the alphabet: A=65, B=66, ...
a=97, b=98. Punctuation marks are also assigned an ASCII number: Period=46, Space=32.
ASCII numbers begin as follows: 0=48, 1=49, ...
The fact that every computer codes the letters the same way is what makes
communication between computers possible. The numbers shown above are in decimal
(base 10). Most compact tables are in hexidecimal ( base 16).
Qualifying property of an HTML tag. Attributes are
A central high speed network that connects smaller, independent
networks. the NSFnet is an example. The connections between the primary computers in a
network. Stub networks branch off the backbone.
Used to express the maximum possible throughput of a data link in bits
per second. A T1 line has a bandwidth of 1.544 Mbps. A 28.8k baud modem has a nominal
bandwidth of 0.0288 Mbps.
Graphical representation (generally narrow and wide bars) that represent
one of a number of numeric or alphanumeric standards.
A measurement of signaling speed of a data transmission device Baud rate
does not equal bits per second.
BPR (Business Process Re-engineering:
The fundamental analysis and radical redesign of everything: business
processes and management systems, job definitions, organizational structures and beliefs
and behaviors to achieve dramatic performance improvements to meet contemporary
requirements. Information technology (IT) is a key enabler in this process.
A bulletin board is similar to a network and thus Internet. Requirements
for a bulletin board are a computer, modem, and preferably bulletin board software. A
bulletin board can contain directories of files (for user downloading) and e-mail
facilities (where users can exchange/or post messages). Based on their access privileges,
those using a bulletin board can read, download (copy from the bulletin board), upload
(place on the bulletin board), and even modify stored files. Bulletin boards can be on the
Internet. Bulletin board software is required to allow the bulletin board owner to place
limits on access. (i.e., not all BBS users should be allowed to modify files that are
stored on the BBS. Not all of the BBS's users would be allowed full access to the computer
on which the BBS is stored.seel electronic bulletin board
Cache memory is a small area of very fast RAM used to speed exchange of
CAD (Computer-Aided Design ):
The application of information technology to elements of the design
process for manufactured, assembled, and constructed products, covering both drafting
applications (in the creation, modification, storage, and production of engineering and
other technical drawings) and modeling (the generation and use of full three-dimensional
CAE (Computer-Aided Engineering):
The application of information technology to elements of the design and
engineering process. It includes all types of performance systems, e.g., heat transfer,
structural, electromagnetic, aeronautics, and acoustic analysis.
CALS (Continuous Acquisition and Life-cycle Support):
( formerly Computer-Aided Acquisition and Logistic Support):
CALS is a global strategy to further enterprise integration through the
streamlining of business processes and the application of standards and technologies for
the development, management, exchange, and use of business and technical information.
CALS Test Network (CTN):
The CALS Test Network (CTN) is a confederation of hundreds of industry
and government organizations that have agreed to evaluate and demonstrate the interchange
and functional use of digital technical information using CALS standards. This is
accomplished through a collaborative multi-service effort.
CAM (Computer-Aided Manufacturing):
The application of information technology to the control and management
of manufacturing processes, normally restricted to the control of machine tools such as
lathes and mills, where the tool is directly controlled by a computer.
CASE (Computer-Aided Software Engineering):
CASE is an umbrella term for a collection of tools and techniques which
are said by their distributors to promise revolutionary gains in analyst and programmer
productivity. The two prominent delivered technologies are application generators and
PC-based workstations that provide graphics-oriented automation of the front end of the
CBT (Computer-Based Training):
Training which is delivered via a computer. Computer-based training
includes tutorials, drill and practice, simulations, testing and may also include embedded
training. Computer-based training programs are already delivered in digital form to the
CCITT Group 4):
This CALS standard for raster graphics incorporates tiling, which
divides a large image into smaller tiles. Graphic files are exchanged in CCITT/4 format in
a compressed state so they take up much less file space.
Consultative Committee for International Telephone and Telegraphy
International committee that specifies international communication standards.
CD ROM, CD ROM Drive (Compact Disk Read-Only Memory):
A read-only disk storage technology that provides up to 600Mb of space
in about the same space as a 3.25 in. computer diskette (which stores 1.44Mb). Data stored
in this format cannot be modified or updated. An additional CD (computer disk or compact
disk) ROM drive is required to access and use data stored in this format and the data
cannot be changed or updated. Access speeds are slower than from a standard computer disk
drive. The CD ROM drives will typically access both computer disk and compact disk music
formats. CD ROMs use a laser technolgy while standard computer diskettes use a magnetic
technology. Neither technology has reached its limits in terms of storage capacity or
CE (Concurrent Engineering):
A systematic approach to creating a product design that considers all
elements of the product life cycle from conception of the design to disposal of the
product, and in so doing defines the product, its manufacturing processes, and all other
required life cycle processes such as logistic support.
CERN(Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire):
In the late 1980's, the computer services group were looking for a way
to facilitate access to the types of information that CERN research fellows needed. In
1989, Tim Berners-Lee came up with a brilliant way to send and receive complex documents
created on diverse computers using a variety software packages. He did so by combining the
Internet with hypertext, a formatting language, and a client server model. You run a
program called a client (or browser) on your computer. Under your direction, this program
originates requests for information, which are received by server programs running on some
other computer on the network. The server delivers a copy of the requested data and the
client displays it. The protocol that allows a browser to send out a request via the
Internet is called HTTP.
CGI, cgi-bin (Common Gateway Interface):
The CGI through which binary files and HTML files
communicate. CGI is not a computer language. CGI scripts are commonly written in PERL (or
AppleScript) and run in the background on the web server. CGI is the mechanism that has
become a standard way of extending the capabilities of a web server. The counter seen on
this and other home pages is typically done in a CGI. When you fill out a form, CGI was
the likely recipient of the data that was sent back and send it on to a database system.
API (Application Program Interface ) is a higher performance alternative to CGI. With
support from both Netscape and Microsoft, these serve extensions offer opportunities for
web publishers to create more sophisticated (and useful) sites.Cf. Gateway
A simple type of Web animation in which a series of pages is loaded in
succession, governmed by concealed coding in the headers of the HTML
A part of computer memory used as temporary storage for anything cut
(Ctrl-X) or copied (Ctrl-X) to it. Text and images stored on the clipboard can be
pasted (Ctrl-V) into another part of the document or in another document. New items are
copied over (i.e. replace) what was previously on the clipboard
CGM (Computer Graphics Metafile):
This file format standard is a two-dimensional picture description or
vector-oriented illustration data delivered in digital format. CGM is suited for
illustrations often found in training, maintenance, and technical manuals.
CIM (Computer-Integrated Manufacturing):
The application of information technology to the management of complete
systems or subsystems within a manufacturing environment, characterized by the integration
of many separate applications such as CAD, CAM, CAE, and robotics together with commercial
applications such as stock control, spares ordering, and process planning.
CIM (Corporate Information Management):
The US Department of Defense initiative to streamline and improve the
way information is managed throughout the military. The Information Management philosophy
is founded on business process improvement.
CITIS (Contractor Integrated Technical Information Service):
A technical information service based on the integration of databases
(contractor , subcontractor, and government ) contractually established and managed by the
defense contractor to receive, maintain, and provide access to technical and support
information on a defense system. [MIL-STD-974]ith permission from Joan Smith. Adapted from
"An Introduction to CALS: The Strategy and the Standards", 1990.
A computer or software that requests a service of another computer
system or process (a "server"). For example, a workstation requesting the
contents of a file from a file server is a client of the file server.
A web browser is commonly referred to as a client.
CMS (Life-cycle Management System):
A set of processes (which may include computer-aided software
engineering tools) which facilitate the creation, tailoring, and navigation of a system
development life cycle. A life cycle management system may take the form of an integrated
project support environment or an estimating system linked to a project scheduling and
A tool for manpower estimating, life cycle costing, and scheduling tool
for manpower estimating, life cycle costing, and scheduling. * National Security
Industrial Association. "CALS Expo '93, Proceedings and Reference".
Communication (COM) port:
Logical designation of serial communication channels.
Communication Protocol (CP):
The rules governing the exchange of information between devices on a
data link. * Fairfax CALS Shared Resource Center, 1994.
The act or process of complying to a desire, demand, or proposal. *
Adapted from: Sharon
Component Testing (CT):
Is conducted to verify the implementation of the design for one software
element (e.g., unit, module) or a collection of software elements. * Sharon J. Kemmerer.
Department of Commerce, United States Government. "CALS Testing Programs, Status and
Strategy" October 1992.
Configuration Management (CM):
CM controls and manages product description with its supporting
technical and scientific information. * Fairfax CALS Shared Resource Center, 1994.
Conformance Testing (CT):
The testing of a candidate product for the existence of characteristics
required by a standard. Its primary activity is to ensure specified behavior of
implementations. Additional benefits include: clarifying the standard for guiding future
implementation, producing a feedback loop to the standards making bodies for improvements
to the standard, encouraging commercial development by supporting a baseline for
commonality in all products, and providing greater confidence on the part of the potential
enterprise user. Conformance-tested implementations increase the probability these same
implementations will be able to inter-operate, but provides no guarantee.
COTS (Commercial Off The Shelf ):
Commercial Off The Shelf refers to software and hardware technology
which is commercially available and requires minimum changes (design/development), if any,
A term coined by Wm. Gibson in Necromancer to describe the sum
total of computer accessible information in the world.
Software designed to manipulate the information in a database. It can
create, sort, display selected information, search for specific information, and perform
many other tasks of a database. This kind of software allows speed of access and the
ability to automatically produce reports.
Data Dictionary (DD):
A repository of information about data, such as its meaning,
relationships to other data, origin, usage and format. The dictionary assists company
management, database administrators, systems analysts and application programmers in
effectively planning, controlling and evaluating the collection, storage and use of data.
A data dictionary manages data categories such as alias, data elements, data records, data
structure, data store, data models, data flows, data relationships, processes, functions,
dynamics, size, frequency, resource consumption and other user-defined attributes.
Data Management Standards:
Data management standards will provide common definitions of the data
elements, their attributes, relationships, data integrity constraints, and database access
rules. This includes standards for system and data protection and security.
The logical data structure developed during the logical database design
process is a data model or entity model. It is also a description of the structural
properties that define all entries represented in a database and all the relationships
that exist among them.
A structured method for representing and describing the data used in a
business function automated system. Data modeling is used in combination with two other
structured methods, data flow analysis and functional decomposition, to define the
high-level structure of business and information systems. Its primary function is to
define the attributes of and relationships among data items.
A file accompanying any set of transferred files comprising a document;
provides all information necessary to the successful disposition of the digital files at
the destination, but has no purpose beyond that function.
Defacto Standard (Proprietary Standard):
A standard which has been endorsed by industry or government, but not
officially approved by an accredited standards body such as ISO.
Markup that describes the structure and other attributes of a document
in a non-system-specific manner, independently of any processing that may be performed on
it. In particular, it uses tags to express the element structure.
The computer hardware, software, and network receiving transferred data.
Development testing is equivalent to "proof of principal" as
proposed standards are being developed, and before those draft standards achieve technical
DID (Data Item Description):
A DID identifies specific data requirements, which may include the
format of a report used to display the data. Most current DID's were prepared with only
the hard copy (paper, aperture card, etc.) document environment in mind. In a CALS
environment, two aspects of data acquisition must be examined to determine whether
existing DID's are adequate: the deliverable itself (documents, processable data files,
interactive access), and the delivery mode (physical media or telecommunications).
Characterized by being either on or off with no intermediate value. The
term is applied to computer data in transit and contrasted with analog.
Digital Technical Data:
Includes the part descriptions, product specifications, and standards
that the initial designer draws upon; the engineering drawings and product data used in
design and manufacturing; the information needed to guide the people who operate the
system in the field, or who support and maintain it at all echelons of the logistic
support structure; the materials needed to train new operators, maintainers and other
technicians; and the information needed for re-procurement, re- manufacturing,
modification, and feedback to industry for future design.
A hard wired connection between a computer and the Internet giving the
computer an IP address and the ability to function as a Web site. Contrasted to a
dial up connection
A database whose objects (tables, views, columns and files) reside on
more than one system in a network, and can be accessed or updated from any system in the
Refers to computer systems in multiple locations throughout an
organization working in a cooperative fashion, with the system at each location serving
the needs of that location but also able to receive information from other systems, and
supply information to other systems within the network.
A set of text and/or graphical data organized and formatted for direct
human interpretation. A document can be delivered as printed pages or digitally in the
form of composed page images.
Document Image File:
A digital data file representation of a human interpretable document.
Examples are raster image files and page description language files.
A class of documents having similar characteristics; for example
journal, article, technical manual, or memo.
Document type declaration:
A markup declaration that contains the formal specification of a
Document Type Definition (DTD).
DTD (Document Type Definition):
SGML is a metalanguage used to define particular document types. One
could create an SGML for a cookbook that had only five tags. Alternatively, one could use
SGML to define a web document and call it HTML. SGML is an
International Standard for marking up electronic documents, ISO 8879
Document Type Definition:
When you create a new markup language in SGML
, you write what is called a DTD which defines what your markup language looks like and
how to handle documents that have been written in that markup language. When you use an HTML validator, you are checking the validity of your documents against
an HTML DTD. HTML 1.0 and HTML 3.0 comply with the SGML standard. The core
SGML philosophy is that documents should be defined based on their content and not on
their appearance. This has been a source of conflict because most electronic publishers
want to control the appearance of their pages.
Domain Name System (DNS):
A scheme for translating numeric Internet addresses into "user
friendly" strings of word segments denoting user names and locations. The Internet
naming scheme consists of a hierarchical sequence of names, from the most specific to the
most general (left to right), separated by dots, for example luorc.ecrc.edu . (See
also: IP address)
Dot pitch is the space between pixels. The smaller the number, the
sharper the image will appear. (.28mm is better than .32mm)
An engineering document or digital data file(s) that discloses (directly
or by reference), by means of graphic or textual presentations, or a combination of both,
the physical and functional requirements of an item.
DTD (Document Type Definition):
A DTD is the formal definition of the elements,
structures, and rules for marking up a given type of SGML document. You can store a DTD at
the beginning of the document or externally in a separate file.
A shared file where users can enter information for other users to read
or download. Many bulletin boards are set up according to general topics and are
accessable throughout a network.
E-Mail (Electronic Mail):
Any communications service that permits the electronic transmission and
storage of messages and attached/enclosed files.
EC (Electronic Commerce):
The end-to-end digital exchange of all information needed to conduct
business. Examples include EDI transactions, electronic mail, archives, audit trails, and
all forms of records, including graphical images. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI),
Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) and Continuous Acquisition and Life-cycle Support (CALS).
EDI (Electronic Data Interchange):
The inter-organizational, computer-to-computer exchange of structured
information in a standard, machine-processable format.
EDIF (Electronic Design Interchange Format):
A neutral, platform independent format for the interchange of integrated
circuit design data from design to manufacturing organizations.
EDIFACT (EDI For Administration, Commerce and Transport):
United Nations rules for Electronic Data Interchange for Administration,
Commerce and Transport. They comprise a set of internationally agreed upon standards,
directories and guidelines for the electronic interchange of structured data related to
trade in goods and services between independent computerized information systems.
EFT (Electronic Funds Transfer ):
Electronic movement of data between banks which results in a value
transfer between accounts.
EFT (Electronic Funds Transfer):
EFT is a technology (one of the electronic commerce technologies) that
allows the transfer of funds from the bank account of one person or organization to that
of another. EFT is also used to refer to the action of using this technology. It is an
important addition in the organization that implements EDI in their organization.
A method of ensuring data secrecy. The message is coded using a key
available only to the sender and the receiver. The coded message is sent to the receiver
and then decoded upon receipt.
Any technical data (whether prepared by the Government, contractor, or
vendor) relating to the specification, design, analysis, manufacture, acquisition, test,
inspection or maintenance of items or services. Engineering data is comprised of all
information that contains authoritative engineering definition or guidance on material,
constituent items, equipment or systems practices, engineering methods, and processes.
Enterprise Integration (EI):
Is the removal of organizational, process, and informational barriers to
the smooth and effective flow of material and products between the activities of an
Is a collection of organizations and people formed to create and deliver
product to customers.
ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning):
ERP represents the next generation of manufacturing resource planning
(MRP II) software. ERP's usefulness and power lies beyond the present function boundaries
of MRP II. Beyond the standard functionality that is offered, other features are included,
e.g., quality process operations management, and regulatory reporting. In addition the
base technology used in ERP will give users software and hardware independence as well as
an easy upgrade path. Key to ERP is the way in which users can tailor the application.
ESnet (Energy Sciences Network):
This is a Department of Energy (DOE) system that provides the full text
of select DOE documents. Many of these documents are related to computers and information
policy. It also contains gateways to a variety of energy-related sources and downloadable
public domain software.
A software system with two basic components: a knowledge base and an
inference engine. The system mimics an expert's reasoning process.
A FAQ is a list of frequently asked questions. On the Internet a FAQ may
exist as a feature of an interest groups or be a mailing list. Each FAQ addresses a
specific topic with a list of questions and their answers.
FCIM is the integration of equipment, software, communication, human
resources, and business practices within an enterprise to rapidly manufacture, repair, and
deliver items on demand with continuous improvements in the processes. The FCIM initiative
is a Joint Service and Agency effort to establish and implement the procedures and
processes needed to expand the use of flexible manufacturing technology within the
Department of Defense. The Joint Logistics Commanders chartered the Joint Technical
Coordinating Group on FCIM (JTCG-FCIM) with the mission to coordinate participation of the
Service Logistics Commands in the development and implementation of FCIM throughout the
File Transfer Protocol (FTP):
A way of transferring files between computers. A protocol that describes
file transfers between a host and a remote computer. It is also used to program based on
A digital repository of organized information consisting of records,
items or arrays, and data elements.
A software tool used to determine whether another user is logged on to
the Internet. It can also be used to find out a user's address.
FIPS (Federal Information Processing Standard ):
Standards published by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and
Technology, after approval by the Dept. of Commerce; used as a guideline for federal
A computer system that sits between the Internet and a company's LAN. It
is a means of automatically limiting what a company's computer system will pass along to
outside computer systems. It acts as an active gateway to keep non-company entities from
accessing company confidential data.
FOSI (Formatting Output Specification Instance):
A FOSI is used for formatting SGML documents. It is a separate file that
contains formatting information for each element in a document.
FTAM (File Transfer, Access and Management):
The Open Systems Interconnection standard for file transfer (i.e., the
communication of an entire file between systems), file access (i.e., the ability to
remotely access one or more records in a file) and management (e.g., the ability to
create/delete, name/rename a file).
Used in different senses (e.g., Mail Gateway, IP Gateway), but most
generally, a computer that forwards and routes data between two or more networks of any
size. See CGI.
A search tool that presents information in a hierarchical menu system
somewhat like a table of contents.
GOSIP (Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile):
The U.S. government's OSI protocols that address communication and
inter-operation of computer systems across government agencies; they mandate that network
procurements comply with the Open System Interconnection model.
A technical standard describing the digital exchange format of graphics
data. (CCITT Group 4 and CGM are examples).
GTIS (Government Technical Information Systems):
The collection of automated data processing systems and applications
used by government agencies and offices to enter, update, manage, retrieve, and distribute
technical data from a specific Integrated Weapon System Data Base.
HTML is essentially an SGML DTD for hyperlinked text with in-line
graphics which serves as the language of the Internet's World Wide Web. Documents that are
formatted with proprietary software are typically too big for efficient transmission. A 4
Kb page in plain text can double in size with the addtion of proprietary formatting codes.
A mark up language does not have this overhead. Instead of defining precisely how the
document should appear, it identifies the important parts of a document, including text
that should be emphasized. HTML codes are so compact that they have little or no effect on
the file size.
HTML provides a way to dress up documents and make them look better than
email. In addition, HTML provides tags for inserting in-line images and cross references
or links. "Tags" are embedded in the text. A tag consists of a less-than
bracket, "<", a "directive", zero or more parameters and a
">". Matched pairs of directives, like "<title>" and
"</title>" are used to delimit text which is to appear in a special place
or style. Links to particular places (anchor points) in other documents are in the form
where "a", "/a" delimit an "anchor" called #H at the listed
URL, (the anchor can be given any name). "href" introduces a hypertext
reference, which in this case is a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) (the string enclosed in
double quotes in the example above). The text "ECRC Glossary" will be the label
appearing on the highlighted link in the browser.
A certain place within an HTML document can be
specified by following the document name with a hash (#) and the name of an anchor at that
position. In the example the target was #H. This target must be inserted in the document
using the tag <a name="#H></a>. Without the anchor within the document,
the link would be to the top of the first page of the document specified by the URL.
HTTP(Hypertext Transfer Protoco):
The protocol developed at CERN that enables a
browser ( or client) to send out a request to a web server via the Internet.
Text that is not limited to a single linear or sequential path through
it. Hypertext provides the option of non-sequential, non-hierarchical navigation through a
body of information. Ted Nelson envisioned hypertext in 1965. His two books Computer
Lib and Dream Machines are available in one volume from Microsoft press. He
defines hypertext as non-sequential writing. Just as there is good and bad sequential
writing, there is good and bad hypertext. The point is to organize data in a way that
readers can easily pick the chunks they find relevant without following a sequence
dictated by the author.
Hyperbolic Space or Hyperspace:
In Klien's geometry, a space with manymore dimensions that the four we
are used to (height, width, depth, and time) Nelso asked, "What is the hyperspace of
a document?" It would be all of the concepts it contained.
A technology that employs either software only or software and hardware
to automatically recognize and translate raster images into structured data.
A functional modeling method for complex manufacturing environment which
when graphically represented show the structural relationships between the manufacturing
a graphical method which extends the process model by modeling the
information flows and the entity relationships. IDEF1X provides extensions to IDEF1 with
different graphical representation.
IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers):
Organization of engineers, scientists and students involved in
electrical, electronics, and related fields; also functions as a publishing house and
IETM (Interactive Electronic Technical Manual):
An interactive, intelligent access environment for large volumes of
graphical and text-based technical information. It provides a complete electronic
technical manual that is linked to text, drawings, photographs, [video] and fault
IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Standard):
A neutral file format for the representation and transfer of product
definition data among CAD/CAM systems and application programs.
A picture, graph, diagram or other form of graphical representation
contained within a technical publication.
ILS (Integrated Logistics Support):
Encompasses the unified management of the technical logistics elements
that plan and develop the support requirements for a system. This can include hardware,
software, and the provisioning of training and maintenance resources.
A methodology for developing an integrated information system based on
the sharing of common data, with emphasis on decision-support needs as well as transaction
processing requirements. It assumes logical data representations are relatively stable, as
opposed to the frequently changing processes that use the data. Therefore, the logical
data model, which reflects an organization's rules and policies, should be the basis for
A structured collection of information system components and
organization processes that enable the flow of necessary information to effect enterprise
The Information Superhighway is a network that will potentially connect
every government agency, business, and citizen providing a means of rapid access to
information (in digital form) and electronic communication to every business and citizen
in the country. This vision is an unprecedented nationwide (and ultimately worldwide)
electronic communications network that will provide just about any sort of electronic
communication imaginable. Your computer, interactive TV, telephone, or other technology
will enable access. The purpose of the information superhighway is to provide an
infrastructure for, among other things, electronic commerce, in a variety of forms
including electronic banking, electronic data interchange, inventory managing, taxpaying,
video conferencing, medical diagnosing, and virtually any other business activity. The
closest approximation to the Information Superhighway at this time is the Internet.
Can be described as consisting of three main components: physical
integration, the connection of the hardware; data integration, the ready exchange of data
between applications without loss of functionality; and lastly business integration, the
integration of the functions needed to support decisions, monitor and control business.
Intelligent gateway is a technology which makes the complexities of
on-line database connection and authorized interrogation transparent to users. Intelligent
gateways provide transparent logos, transfer user prompted queries into that can be read
by non-standard database retrieval programs.
Inter-operability testing addresses the problem of data interchange
between two vendor products within a data system, or between two data systems.
The ability to access authorized portions of the source data maintained
in contractor or Government systems via on-line telecommunications data transfers in real
or near-real time using various types of queries.
Internet Protocol (IP):
A standard that describes how packets of data are transported across the
Internet and recognized as an incoming message.
Internet Relay Chat (IRC):
A software tool that makes it possible to hold real-time keyboard
The series of interconnected networks that includes local area,
regional, and national backbone networks. Networks in the Internet use the same
telecommunications protocol (TCP/IP) and provide electronic mail, remote login, and file
transfer services. The global Internet, the world's largest internet, includes nearly
every university, government, and research facility in the world. Since 1994, the number
of commercial sites has increased exponentially to the point where, in 1996, 50% of the
nodes on the Internet are commercial (.com) sites. The Internet is the closest thing that
we have the Information Superhighway. It started with four interconnected computers in
1969 known as ARPAnet.
The official source of information about the Internet. Its goal is to:
1) provide Internet information services, 2) supervise the registration of Internet
addresses, and 3) develop and provide databases that serve as white and yellow pages to
An intranet is a LAN or WAN operating under the TCP/IP and HTTP
protocals but, usually for security reasons, is not connected to the global Internet. The
information on the intranet is available only to those with network access.
The numeric address of a computer connected to the Internet; also called
Internet address. See domain name and TCP/IP.
IP (Internet protocol) :
The Internet standard protocol that provides a common layer over
dissimilar networks, used to move packets among host computers and through gateways if
IPDB (Integrated Product Data Base):
A common product data base enables changes and modifications available
to users simultaneously.
IRDS (Information Resources Dictionary System):
IRDS is a standard, not a system. It specifies services performed by a
data administrator in cataloguing, documenting, managing, and using data dictionaries. It
is based on the entity- relationship model, and allows attributes on relationships.
Interrupt request, used to get the attention of the system to perform a
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network):
The technical standards and design philosophy according to which digital
networks will be designed. ISDN provides high-speed, high-bandwidth channels to every
subscriber on the network, achieving end-to-end digital functions with standard equipment
interface devices. The networks will enable a variety of mixed digital transmission
services to be accommodated at a single interface (including voice and circuit and packet
ISO (International Standards Organization):
A voluntary, non-treaty organization established in 1949 to promote
ISO (International Standards Organization):
ISO is the international standards organizations that is similar in
function to ANSI. They do not create standards but as with ANSI the provided a means of
verifying that a proposed standard has met certain requirements for due process,
consensus, and other criteria by those developing the standard. After this verification
the standard is approved as an international standards by ISO.
SO 9000 is a series of international standards that provides quality
management guidance and identifies quality system elements that are necessary for quality
assurance. In other words, the ISO 9000 series standards have two main roles: to provide
guidance for suppliers of all types of products that wish to implement effective quality
systems (or improve existing ones); and to provide the generic requirements against which
that quality system can be evaluated.
ISO/OSI (International Standards Organization/Open System
A standard, modular approach to network design that divides the required
set of complex functions into manageable, self- contained, functional layers.
IWSDB (Integrated Weapon Systems Database):
A physically distributed, logically linked data structure for the total
collection of shared product definition and support data for one or more defense systems.
JCALS (Joint Computer-Aided Acquisition and Logistic Support):
The JCALS program is the Department of Defense's lead system for
implementation of CALS. The functionality of JCALS will provide automation of technical
manuals and other maintenance documents. Fairfax CALS Shared Resource Center, 1994.
JCMO (Joint CALS Management Office):
The JCMO was established as a joint (multi) military organization
comprised of Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps and Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) in
order to implement common (joint) CALS solutions. The JCMO developed the DoD CALS
Architecture released in June 1991.
JEDMICS (Joint Engineering Data Management Information and Computer
The standard DoD program for management of engineering drawings and
related technical data. It automates the DoD's engineering data repositories using an
integrated suite of off-the-shelf hardware and software. This system enables improved
acquisition, storage, update, and retrieval of technical information. Plans call for
installation of JEDMICS at 25 sites by Fiscal Year 1995.
JIT (Just-In-Time) Inventory:
A method of controlling and reducing direct and work-in-process
inventory by having suppliers deliver material "just in time" to manufacturing.
[ed. May also be applied to other areas such as "just in time training" offered
JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group):
A widely accepted, international standard for compression of color
images. * Included with the permission of: Gartner Group, Inc.
Kilobit and Kilobyte:
A kilobit is 1000 bits. A byte usually equals 8 bits. Thus, a
Kilobyte=8000bits. The former is generally used to indicate the speed of transmission
(kbps or kb/s). The second along with Mb is typically used to as a measure of storage
A user-owned and operated data transmission facility connecting a number
of communicating devices (e.g. computers, terminals, word processors, printers, and mass
storage units) within a single building or campus of buildings.
In the Open System Interconnection reference model, refers to a
collection of related network-processing functions that constitute one level of a
hierarchy of functions.
Refers to the total cost of a product over the full life of the product.
The cost includes design, development, production, and support.
LDM (Legacy Data Management):
The process of identifying and evaluating historical information and
defining potential solutions and requirements for long-term usage of that data in a cost
A span of time required to perform an activity. In a production and
inventory control context, the activity is normally the procurement of materials or
product from either an outside supplier or a company's own manufacturing facility. The
individual components of any given lead time can include some or all of the following:
order preparation time, queue time, move or transportation time, receiving and inspection
Existing data that has been acquired by an organization.
LOA (Letter Of Agreement):
A document executed between two or more parties outlining specific
agreements relating to the accomplishment of an action.
Logistics is the science of planning and implementing the acquisition
and use of the resources necessary to sustain the operation of a system.
A modeling process used to recognize the maintenance, training and the
number of people that are required to get the system running and to maintain the system.
LSAR (Logistics Support Analysis Record):
That portion of LSA documentation consisting of detailed data pertaining
to the identification of logistic support resource requirements of a system or equipment.
Magnetic tape is the preferred physical medium for delivery of technical
data in digital form because it is a mature, stable technology that is able to handle the
large volumes of data typically involved in a major weapon system acquisition.
A BBS (see the definition of BBS) like server that acts like a giant
message router. All messages sent to the mailing list are automatically sent to all
members of the mailing list.
The measure of the ability of an item to be retained in or restored to
specified condition when maintenance is performed by personnel having specified skill
levels, using prescribed procedures and resources, at each prescribed level of maintenance
MANTECH (Manufacturing Technology):
This DoD program may provide a source of viable technology transfer for
program specific CALS initiatives. The MANTECH program was established to help develop and
improve manufacturing processes, techniques and equipment to provide timely reliable and
economical production in DoD.
MAP (Manufacturing Automation Protocol):
A largely moribund communication standard proposed by General Motors in
1986 that ideally would have enabled system devices within a manufacturing company to
communicate among themselves.
Tags that are added to the data of a document in order to convey
information about it.
MIL-HDBK (Military Handbook):
A document published by the Military Defense Department as a guide for
implementing various programs.
MIL-HDBK-59 (Military Handbook 59):
The "DoD CALS Program Implementation Guide," is not a
standard. It provides the acquisition manager and his staff, as well as defense
contractors and government end users with a detailed explanation of the CALS program, its
objectives and strategy, and how to develop and apply CALS requirements that meet the
needs of a particular weapon system development program. The current version is `B`.
MIL-SPEC (Military Specification):
A Specification used to specify requirements when designing or producing
a product for the Department of Defense.
A device that converts digital signals from a computer to analog signals
for transmission over phone lines.
Windows-like product for exploring the Internet that is available free
in Cyberspace, CompuServe, America On-line, and many bulletin boards. Mosaic was developed
by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at University of Illinois and was
funded with tax dollars.
Graphical user interface specified by the Open Software Foundation and
built on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's X Windows.
MPEG (Motion Pictures Experts Group):
An emerging standard for compression of full motion images driven by the
same committee as the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) standard.
MRP (Material Requirements Planning):
Original manufacturing business software that focused only on planning
the manufacturing materials and inventories and did not integrate planning for other
resources, such as people and machine capacity.
Used essentially to define applications and technologies that manipulate
text, data, images and voice full motion video objects. Typically associated with PCs, but
increasingly associated with networked-based applications.
A concept conceived by the Clinton Administration and an alliance of
computer, software, cable, and phone companies. The proposed concept would be the
electronic network of tomorrow and would use phone line, cable systems, and high-speed
data-networks to link everyone, including government agencies, universities, company
presidents, and private citizens. The concept envisions vast amounts of services,
entertainment, and information being made readily available through computers,
televisions, telephones, and other means of electronic communication.
National Research and Education Network (NREN):
The High-Performance Computing and Communications Act of 1991 (sponsored
by Vice-President Gore) was a bill that created the NREN. NREN will use the Internet to
provide information resource connection not only to universities, research centers and
government agencies, but also to secondary and elementary schools. The bill provides $2.9
billion over a five year period towards the NREN. The High-Performance Computing and High
Speed Networking Applications Act of 1993, sponsored by Rep. Richard Bouche, expands the
Gore bill to also include access to health care facilities and and schools at all levels.
Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS):
A Microsoft specification for a type of device driver that allows
multiple transport protocols to run on one network card simultaneously.
Network News Transport Protocol (NNTP):
An extension of the TCP/IP protocol that describes how newsgroup
messages are transported between compatible servers.
A BBS-like forum or conference area where you can post messages on a
specified topic. Many newsgroups covering a wide range of topics exist on the Internet.
NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology):
Created in 1901 as the National Bureau of Standards and renamed in 1988,
the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) works to strengthen U.S.
industry's international competitiveness, advance science, and improve public health,
safety and the environment. NIST conducts science and engineering research in commercially
important fields such as advanced materials, information systems, biotechnology,
optoelectronics, computer-integrated manufacturing, and sensor technology.
A Node is a termination point for two or more communication links. The
Node serves as the control location for forwarding data among the elements of a network or
multiple networks, as well as perform other networking, and in some cases, local
processing functions. In systems network architecture, a node is an end point of a link or
a junction common to two or more links in a network. Nodes can be host processors,
communications controllers, cluster controllers, work group computers or terminals.
An explicit document architecture and interchange format standard which
allows exchange of compound documents (i.e., documents composed of various content types,
such as character, raster graphics, and geometric (Computer) graphics content.
Open Data-link Interface (ODI):
A standard interface, developed by Novell and Apple, that performs the
same functions as NDIS.
A system capable of communicating with other open systems by virtue of
implementing common international standard protocols.
OSI (Open Systems Interconnection):
A standard approach to network design developed by the International
Standards Organization that introduces modularity by dividing the complex set of functions
into more manageable, self- contained, functional slices.
An unalterable optical storage medium that allows large amounts of data
to be permanently written to it. An optical disk is read using laser and magnetic
technology and has a useful life span of 100 plus years.
A TCP/IP utility that sends packets of information to a computer on a
network. It can be used to determine if a computer is connected to the Internet.
The word "parse" comes from "parts of speech" in
Latin. It means to part or break down into component parts. A parser is a specialized
software program that recognizes SGML and markup in a document. A parser that reads a DTD
and checks and reports on markup errors is a validating SGML parser. A parser can be built
into an SGML editor to prevent incorrect tagging and to check whether a document contains
all the required elements.
PDES/STEP (Product Data Exchange Standard/Standard for the Exchange
of Product Model Data):
A set of standards under development for communicating a complete
product model with sufficient information content that advanced CAD/CAM applications can
interpret. PDES is under development as a national (U.S.) standard and STEP is under
development as its international counterpart.
PDF (Portable Document Format):
A file format created with Adobe Acrobat which ensures that the document
looks the same on any computer equipped with a free Acrobat reader. PDF Writer lets you
direct print output from a word processing or page layout pgoram to a PDF file instead of
a printer. Using it is as easy as printing. Acrobat Exchange allows you to modify PDF
documents by adding hypertext links, text, annotations, and security restrictions.
PDL (Page-Description Language):
Software that instructs a printer in composing various elements (e.g.,
text, graphics, images) of a printed page. [Ed. or Standard Page Description Language: ISO
10180, Information Processing Text Composition], 1993.
One of the most popular PDLs is PostScript. PostSript documents can be
printed at very high resolutions (600 dpi to 1200 dpi or more) depending on the capability
of your printer.
PLDB (Parts List Data Base):
This tool controls parts inventory during fabrication and operation.
PLDB provides inventory status of parts, prepares part list reports, generates purchase
orders, and tracks cost/budget of parts. PLDB is linked to LSAR, Imaging, and Bar Coding.
POSIX (Portable Operating System Interface):
This standard defines a C programming language source interface to an
operating system environment. This standard is used by computing professionals involved in
system and application software development and implementation.
Plain old telephone service. An unenhanced voice quality connection.
A proposed international standard that specifies techniques for creating
audiovisual interactive applications that recognize and emphasize the interrelationships
among user interfaces, multimedia applications, and multimedia information interchange.
PREMO includes interfaces for external storage, retrieval, and interchange of multimedia
objects. The objective of PREMO is to consider the needs of the computer graphics
community in the mid-1990s, including new application areas.
Processable Data Document:
Technical data in digital source form that is either organized and
formatted so that an automated data processing system can further structure or restructure
the data in a variety of ways, or is compatible for direct processing by an automated
design, engineering, or logistic support system. Processable data can be updated or
transformed for other applications such as production of document images.
All engineering data, in processable form, necessary to define the
geometry, the function, and the behavior of an item over its entire life span, including
logistic elements for quality, reliability, maintainability, topology, relationship,
tolerances, attributes, and features necessary to define the item completely for the
purpose of design, analysis, manufacture, test, and inspection.
A data model that contains the functions and physical characteristics of
each unit of a product throughout its complete life cycle (from requirements specification
Propriety Standard (Defacto Standard):
A standard which has been endorsed by industry or government as the
accepted international standard, but not officially approved by an accredited standards
body such as ISO.
A set of procedures for establishing and controlling data transmission.
Examples include IBM's BSC (Binary Synchronous Communications) and SDLC (Synchronous Data
Link Control) protocols.
A set of rules (priorities) and exception handlers for managing the
communications on a network. A set of rules or standards that describes ways to operate to
achieve compatibility. Alternatively, A mutually determined set of formats and procedures
governing the exchange of information between systems.
The Navy's RAMP program will enhance logistic support by applying
data-driven automated manufacturing, acquisition, and inventory management technologies to
produce small lots of selected, hard-to-acquire parts and assemblies at reduced cost and
significantly shortened lead times.
Random-Access Memory (RAM):
Thought of as temporary memory because when the computer is turned off,
all data stored in RAM is lost. To run a computer software application, it must be loaded
into RAM. All computer programs (software) have a minimum RAM requirement.
Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM):
One of the major objectives of RRM is to create an engineering
information environment that is accessible and useful for multiple engineering and
manufacturing applications. Accepted robust standards for process and product data storage
and exchange, which commercial vendors actively support, are a necessary ingredient of the
infrastructure being developed within the RRM program. RRM views the continuing
development and access of STEP as crucial.
A method of representing a two-dimensional image by dividing it into a
rectangular two- dimensional array of picture elements (pels), achieved by scanning.
RDA (Remote Data Access):
A standard being developed to interconnect applications and databases.
The standard originally attempted to cover any kind of data access and concerned itself
only with effective dialogue management, but the complexity of so broad a scope has
focused it more on Structured Query Language (SQL). An SQL specialization draft based on
SQL2 is being developed as the first potential implementation of RDA.
RDBMS (Relational Database Management System):
A database management system in which the database is organized and
accessed according to the relationships between data items. In a relational database,
relationships between data items are expressed by means of tables. Interdependencies among
these tables are expressed by data values rather than by pointers. This allows a high
degree of data independence.
The description for an operating system that responds to an external
event within a short and predictable time frame. Unlike a batch or time-sharing operating
system, a real-time operating system provides services or control to independent ongoing
A database system in which the database is organized and accessed
according to the relationships between data items without the need for any consideration
of physical orientation and relationship. Relationships between data items are expressed
by means of tables.
The duration or probability of failure-free performance under stated
conditions; or the probability that an item can perform its intended function for a
specified interval under stated conditions.
A facility for storing descriptions and behaviors of objects in an
enterprise, including requirements, policies, processes, data, software libraries,
projects, platforms and personnel, with the potential of supporting both software
development and operations management. A single point of definition for all system
The clarity of a monitor screen. Resolution is expressed in pixels. The
more pixels there are, the higher the resolution.
A document issued by the government to request bids for products or
RFQ (Request For Quote):
Request For Quote is a request issued by a contracting agency to
industry for quotes (proposal) in support of goods or services.
ROM (Read-Only Memory):
A type of computer storage that is not available to the user for
writing. That is, the user of ROM can access and use data which is stored in ROM, but can
not change the data. Computer CDs use ROM. Once data is placed in ROM it remains and can
not be altered in any way by the user.
Hardware/software solution that directs messages between LANs.
A remotely accessible program that lets you do keyword searches for
information on the Internet. The search engine is a server program and should not be
confused with the browser or other programs that run on your desktop PC. There are a
number of search utilities for the WWW (Yahoo, Lycos, etc.). The other Internet services
typically have one search tool: ( FTP--Archie, Gopher--Veronica,...)There are several
types of search engine; the search may cover titles of documents, URLs, headers, or the
Serial Line IP/Point-to-Point Protocol (SLIP/PPP):
Two protocols that allow dial-up access to the Internet through a serial
link. Most Internet access packages support both, through you can use only one at a time.
SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language):
A markup language uses tags to indicate changes within a
document, changes in presentation style, or changes in content type. Generalized
means that the markup used to describe a document is based on the content of that
document, not on its appearance. Standard means that the language has gone through
the international standards process. The SGML standard, approved in 1986, defines a
language for document representation which formalizes markup and frees it of system and
processing dependencies. It provides a coherent and unambiguous syntax for describing
whatever a user chooses to identify within a document.
SGML is a metalanguage, a way of talking
about (and testing or validating) lower level languages. In the case of SGML it might be a
way of talking about elements and tags used in DTDs (document type
definitions). To apply SGML, one first defines a document type. The definition would tag
all the page elements that would deserve special considerations. Bracketed tags mark the
beginning and end of each element. HTML 3.0 is an SGML DTD.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP):
A protocol that describes how information is passed between reporting
devices and data collection programs. It can be used to gather information about hosts on
The computer hardware, software, and network that will structure
technical information for interchange.
SQL (Structured Query Language):
SQL is a relational data language that provides a consistent, English
keyword-oriented set of facilities for query, data definition, data manipulation and data
control. It is a programming interface to a relational database management system (RDBMS).
Determines whether the national, international, or military standards
(and specifications) are viable and implementable.
STEP (Standard for the Exchange of Product model data):
A standard under development which will be used to describe a product in
a neutral format over its complete life-cycle in a hardware-independent way. Source:
Department of Trade and Industry, United Kingdom. "CALS: Computer Aided Acquisition
and Logistic Support: The Executive Guide. "
Specific suite of computer hardware and software. As used in the terms
"Source System" and "Destination System," the term does not
necessarily correspond one to one with "site" or "base" in that most
prime contractor sites and DoD installations have more than one system.
A group of one or more magnetic tapes which collectively represent the
collection of related files comprising a specific delivery of a document or documents.
TBITS (Treasury Board Information Technology Standards):
Treasury Board Information Technology Standards are the official
Government of Canada publications on the standards, guidelines, technical reports and
standard operating practices adopted and promulgated under the Treasury Board Information
TDP (Technical Data Package):
A technical description that is adequate to support acquisition of an
item, including engineering and production, the description consisting of all applicable
technical data such as engineering drawings, associated lists, product and process
specifications and standards, performance requirements, quality assurance provisions, and
Recorded information, regardless of form or method of the recording of a
scientific or technical nature (including software documentation). The term does not
include computer software or data incidental to contract administration, such as financial
and/or management information.
Technical Information Systems:
The generic term for the enterprise network of existing and augmented
automated data processing systems used by government and contractors for management of
technical information in support of the design, manufacture, and logistic processes for
products such as weapon systems and related major equipment items.
A terminal emulation protocol that allows remote log in from any
computer on an internet. Once logged on you can retrieve files from or send files to that
remote computer. (2) A portion of the TCP/IP
suite of software protocols that handles terminals. Among other functions, it allows a
user to log in to a remote computer from the user's local computer.
A file which uses the American Standard Code for Information Interchange
(ASCII) or similar system to represent the text of a document. Data within a text file are
delineated as human readable words, sentences, and paragraphs rather than data elements.
The necessary indexing and linkages between a computer readable text
file and a separate computer readable graphics file, or graphics subsection of the same
text file, such that both portions can be output or updated as a single, apparently
TIFF (Tag Image File Format):
a de facto standard format for image files. The standard used by all FAX
Total Quality Management (TQM) :
Interfunctional approach to quality management, developed by Joseph
Juran, involving marketing, engineering, manufacturing, purchasing, etc. Defects should be
defined through examining customer expectations. The focus is on prevention, detection,
and elimination of sources of defects. The Juran total quality management trilogy is
quality control, quality planning, and quality projects.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP):
A compilation of network and transport level protocols that allow a PC
to speak the same language as other PCs on the Internet or other networks.
A system where a network leases communication lines from a
communications common carrier, enhances them by adding improvements such as error
detection and/or faster response time, and then allows others to use this service on those
lines for a fee.
The presentation of images stored as line segments or other mathematical
Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Netwide Index to Computerized Archives
A search tool (like archie) that searches text that appears in Gopher
A data transmission facility that connects geographically dispersed
sites using long-haul networking facilities.
(see client software, browser)A World Wide Web client. PC
Software such as Netscape Navitagor or NSCA Mosaic that serves as an information retrieval
tool. The browser locates the web site specified in a URL, transfers the specified file,
and interprets the HTML code.
A TCP/IP utility that lets you query compatible servers for detailed
information about other Internet users.
Wide Area Information Server (WAIS):
Software that is used to index large text files in servers. On the
client side, it finds and retrieves documents in databases, based on user-defined
keywords. WAIS indexes can be searched for everything from government documents and
treaties to documents about obscure religious sects.
A software application that controls the order and monitors the
execution of a series of processes (worksteps) in which people act upon work items
(documents, forms, folders and images).
The automation of work among users where the system is intelligent
enough to act based on definition of work types, users, tasks and the recognition of
dynamic processing conditions.
World Wide Web (WWW):
A network of servers that uses hypertext links to find and access files.
Many Web sites also support video and sound.
ANSI X12 Ver. 3050 transaction sets can be described in six pages of 3
digit codes. The X12 format standard is commonly used in EDI (automated computer to
computer data exchange). Purchasing transaction sets include 840s RFQs,
850s Purchase Orders, 855s PO Acknowledgements. Financial transaction sets
include 810s Invoices.
A data communication protocol that ensures data integrity while data is
being transmitted to, from and within the network. This standard defines the
interconnection of packet-switching networks and their associated computers or terminals.
These types of networks make efficient use of the telecommunications networks by taking
the data generated by a computer or a remote terminal and chopping it up into small
identified packets and then looking for the most efficient way of sending this information
to its destination.
Defines the special rules for transmission of a message which may
include text, pictures, and graphics, and allows information to be transmitted between
computers, without specific manufacturer restrictions.
The establishment of any global interconnected network, requires a
directory. The standard for establishing such a directory is X.500, which enables users to
browse through user listings as though they were looking through a telephone book.